External Floating Roof Storage Tanks: Uses and Applications

What exactly are external floating roof storage tanks? To a novice, the term conjures up an image of a lightweight tank, one that floats like a ship's metal hull. In point of fact, these tanks don't float. Rather, it's the floating roof above and inside the tank that's buoyed by a stored fluid. Typically speaking, an EFRST will contain a petroleum product.

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November 14, 2017

Pressure Vessels and Fabrication Services: Factors to Consider in Design and Manufacture

Let's pull back from the exhaustively conducted manufacturing sequences that were carried out during the fabrication of a high-functioning pressure vessel. That's right, instead of scrutinizing the continuity of a sheet metal container or repeatedly inspecting the integrity of weld seam for the umpteenth time, the goal today is to consider the factors that guide the design and manufacturing process.

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November 3, 2017

Primary Design Considerations in Pressure Vessels

It's time to fill up a blank sheet of draughting paper with some thoughts on structural engineering, which means we're about to occupy our minds with pressure vessel design considerations.

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October 13, 2017

Benefits of Onsite Construction and Maintenance Checks for Pressure Equipment

It's important that the following fact is understood. Pressure equipment serviceability is influenced by dynamic forces, by stored energies and dynamic state changing events. Granted, other engineering structures are subjected to damaging forces, but so are pressure vessels.

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October 11, 2017

How Gas Leaks from Pressure Vessels Can Be Prevented

As we've mentioned on numerous occasions, gas leaks from pressure vessels are either immediately destructive or slowly poisonous. Inimical to public safety, the gaseous compounds starve respiratory systems of oxygen. They combust or act as corrosive airborne poisons.

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September 27, 2017

Hazardous Effects of Gas Leaks from Unmaintained Pressure Vessels

The adherence to a specific set of design codes ensures an installed pressure vessel fulfils its purpose as a capable containment unit. What a bitter pill it is to swallow, then, if that superbly designed engineering asset is placed under a second rate maintenance program. Imagine a worst case scenario. A leak is developing in the unmaintained pressure vessel.

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September 18, 2017

Rupture Hazard of Pressured Vessels

Mathematically established circumstances spell bad news for pressure vessels if a rupture event becomes likely. On account of the stress placed on the vessel, any energy released by a rupture will cause a catastrophic release of the contained fluid medium, a release that could develop into a combustible incident.

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August 31, 2017

What is Hoop Stress in Pressure Cylinder?

Hoop stress is a circumferential fluid load variable that all thin-walled pressure cylinders must be designed to handle. Pushing outward, that internal stress factor forces the curving walls of the alloy-strengthened cylinder to bulge and expand outward. If the internal strain wasn't counterbalanced, the seams of the cylinder could burst due to the inexorable expansion effect.

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August 11, 2017

Good Industry Practices for Bulk LP Gas Installations

Liquefied petroleum gas equipment is responsible for the storage and handling of a number of combustible hydrocarbons. Classed as high-demand fuel containers, LP gas pressure vessels are found in industrial parks, as you'd expect, but they're also installed in domestic premises.

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July 26, 2017

How Do Debutanizer Columns Work?

Debutanizer columns (de-butaniser) are part of the fractional distillation family, but more on this family later. The target fraction, as the vessel descriptor implies, is butane. If you picture the natural gas stream entering the tall column, you can perhaps follow the fractionation process as it chemically separates the desired petroleum product.

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July 14, 2017

What are CO2 Absorber Vessels?

Ammonia synthesis plants cover one end of an industrial park. Over in another corner, there's a chemical processing facility. It overlooks the coast, so you can see all the way down to the oil refinery that's being built over there. As you can see from all of these giant facilities, chemical processing technology exists everywhere.

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June 28, 2017

Ammonia Plant Condensate Blowdown Vessel

Nitrogen and hydrogen are thrust together by chemically induced processes to produce large quantities of ammonia. Used as a fertiliser, the synthetically manufactured compound is also present in refrigerant gases and many other useful chemical products, including metal treatment reagents. The role of an ammonia plant condensate blowdown vessel in this processing chain is to supply these large quantities of liquid ammonia, so let's talk about this special vessel type.

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June 14, 2017

Hydrocracking Units in Petroleum Refineries: What are They?

An oil refinery is a little like a chemist's laboratory, except the test tubes and boiling mixes have been enlarged until they straddle massive areas of land. The chemical reactions are also similarly amplified, so the fragile glass beakers are gone. Instead, towering pressure vessels contain the catalysing chemicals.

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May 24, 2017

Commercial Vacuum Distillation Still: Uses and Functions

Everyone's heard of the chemical distillation process, although most of us are only familiar with a few "still" applications. Distilled water and alcohol distillation probably come to mind when the general populace first hears the term. However, commercial vacuum distillation stills are built for more specialised applications, instances where high boiling temperatures would damage the process medium.

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May 11, 2017

What is Condensing Tankless Water Heaters?

Let's take a walk through tankless water heater territory. As the term implies, the design ousts its storage tank in favour of an advanced engineering solution. In its place, a heat exchanger and coiled pipes establish a thermal transaction effect. It's obviously an innovative design, one that increases operational efficiency.

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April 28, 2017

What is Ultrasonic Testing in High Pressure Cylinders?

Ultrasonic technology plays an important role in countless inspection-oriented fields. Essentially, these high-frequency sound waves easily pass through soft or hard materials. Then, as they're reflected, a detailed picture of the material's innermost properties is electronically reproduced.

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April 18, 2017

Secondary Functions of Oil and Gas Separators

Last time around, we covered the primary functions of these system-essential separators. They're designed to split crude oil discharge, to send liquid oil down one channel and a clean stream of gas down a second line. That's a fairly accurate but simplified description of a two-phase hydrocarbon separation system.

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March 27, 2017

Primary Functions of Oil and Gas Separators

Oil well streams require separation. Granted, the crude black stuff is a prized commodity, but it has to be split into two fundamental states before it can be properly processed. Oil and gas separators are required to carry out this processing magic. It's not some kind of mysterious sorcery.

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March 8, 2017

Pressure Vessel Testing and Inspection: Do's and Don'ts

There's very little leeway when an engineer is conducting a pressure vessel testing and inspection assignment. Ideally, there's just no room for gray areas and ambiguous results. The test and inspection procedure should yield a simple binary result, an informed "YES" or "NO" that imparts unbiased operability data.

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February 21, 2017

Pressure Vessel Piping Design: Standards and Analysis

Systemic design practices are essential if fuel and chemical storage complexes are to operate safely. That means the storage units must be geometrically reliable, obviously, and expertly rated to tolerate pressure changes, temperature variations, and chemical reactions.

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February 9, 2017

Pressure and Temperature Effects in Underground Storage Tanks

Subsurface storage vessels are expected to deliver peak performance characteristics in all imaginable condition. No matter how wet, acidic, or physically oppressive the underground terrain becomes, the below ground fluid depot must securely contain its potentially hazardous load.

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January 27, 2017

Effects of Flood and Prolonged Submersion on Misplaced Underground Fuel Tanks

Engineering expertise swings into action when underground fuel tanks are incorporated into known flood areas. There are drainage conduits to mitigate the effects of the muddy water. The location of each buried vessel receives planning, including a feasibility study that accounts for annual rainfall data.

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January 11, 2017

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